Job Search And Occupational Gender Segregation In The Informal Labour Market: The Case Of Beypazari, Turkey

2.981 1.240


In the 1980s, especially in the developed economies, tourism became a viable strategy to be competitive. The tourism-led local economy of Beypazarı (Turkey) is an important case, which has faced a booming of the traditional food production sector, that in turn led to the gender based segregation of the female within the sector. This study is designed to explain how social contacts influence the matching of jobs to female workers with respect to gender structure and spatial and social relationships. The in-depth interviews show that job search processes, especially community based social contacts, together with active role of municipality have further segregated older, less educated, less skilled and cheaper female labour.

Key words: Beypazari, informal female labour, job segregation, social networks, traditional food production, Turkey


Beypazari, informal female labour, job segregation, social networks, traditional food production, Turkey

Full Text:



Abadan-Unat, N. Women, “In The Developing World: Evidence From Turkey”, University Of Denver Press, Denver (1986).

Agarwal, S., “Global-Local Interactions In English Coastal Tourism Geographies, 7.4: 351–72 (2005). Perspectives”,

Alonso-Villar, O., Del Rio, C., “Occupational And Industrial Segregation Of Female And Male Workers In Spain: An Alternative Approach”, Ecineq Working, Paper No. 2008–84 (2008).

Anker, R., “Theories Of Occupational Segregation By Sex: An Overview”, International Labour Review, 136.3: 315–39 (1997).

Anker, R., “Gender And Jobs: Sex Segregation And Occupations In The World”, International Labor Office, Geneva. (1998).

Aydin, T., “Assesment Of Institutional Thickness Within The Context Of Tourism-Led Local Economic Development: The Case Of Beypazari”, Unpublished Technical University, Çankaya Ankara, Turkey. (2007). Middle East

Bailey, T., Waldinger, R., “Primary, Secondary, And Enclave Labour Markets: A Training Systems Approach”, American Sociological Review, 56.4: 432–45 (1991).

Barnett, W., Baron, J., Stuart, T., “Avenues Of Occupational Attainment: Organizational Careers In The California Civil Service”, American Journal Of Sociology, 106.1: 88–144 (2000). Demography And

Bauder, H., “Culture In The Labour Market: Segmentation Theory And Perspectives Of Place”, Progress In Human Geography, 251: 37–52 (2001).

Bayard, K., “Ed. New Evidence On Sex Segregation And Sex Differences In Wages From Matched Employee-Employer Data”, Journal Of Labour Economics, 21.4:887–922 (2003). [11] Becker, G. S., “The Discrimination”, 2nd Ed, University Of Chicago Press, Chicago (1971). Economics Of Explanations, Remedies, National

Bluestone, B., Harrison, B., “The Deindustrialization Of America”, Basic Books, New York. (1982).

Bielby, W. T., Baron, J. N., “A Woman’s Place Is With Other Women: Sex Segregation Within Organizations”, In: B. F. Reskin (Ed.), Sex Segregation Explanations, Remedies, National Academy Press: Washington Dc, 27–55 (1984). Workplace: Trends,

Bielby, W. T., Baron, J. N., “Men And Work At Segregation Work: Discrimination”, American Journal Of Sociology, 91.4: 759–99 (1986). And Statistical

Brown, C., Corcoran, M., “Sex-Based Differences In School Content And The Male-Female Wage Gap”, Journal Of Labor Economics, 15.3: 431–76

Campbell, K.E., “Women’s And Men’s Job Searches, Job Changes, And Social Resources”, Unpublished Thesis (Phd), University Of North Carolina, Chapel Hill (1985).

Campbell, K.E., “Gender Differences In Job Related Networks”, Work And Occupations, 15.2: 179–200 (1988).

Campbell, K.E., Rosenfeld, R., “Job Search And Job Mobility”, In: R. L. Simpson And I. H. Simpson (Eds.), Research In The Sociology Of Work. Jai Press, Greenwich, Ct, 147–74 (1985).

Clark, G.L., Whiteman, J., “Why Poor People Do Not Move: Disequilibrium Amongst Local Labor Markets”, Environment And Planning, A 15.1: 85–104 (1983). Behaviour And

Coleman, J. S., “Social Capital In The Creation Of Human Capital”, American Journal Of Sociology, 94: 95–120 (1988). [22] Del-Rio, C., Alonso-Villar,

Segregation In The Spanish Labour Market: An Alternative

Research, 98.2: 337–62 (2010). O., “Gender Approach”, Social Indicators

Dpt., “Research On Socio- And Economic Development Ranking Of Districts”, Ankara (2004).

Doeringer, P.B., Piore, M.J., “Internal Labor Market And Manpower Analysis”, D.C. Heath And Company, Lexington, Ma. (1971).

Dolado, J.J., “Ed. Where Do Women Work? Analysing Patterns In Occupational Segregation By Gender”, Annals Of Economics And Statistics, 71: 293–315 (2003).

Drentea, P., “Consequences Of Women’s Formal And Employment In Female-Dominated Jobs”, Gender & Society, 12.3: 321–38 (1998). Methods For

Ecevit, Y., “Shopfloor Control: The Ideological Construction Of Workers”, In: N. Redclift And M. T. Sinclair (Eds.), Perspectives On Labour And Gender Ideology, Routledge, London, 56–78 (1991). Factory Working Women: International

Ecevit,Y., “The Status And Changing Forms Of Women’s Labour In The Urban Economy”, In: Ş. Tekeli (Ed.), Women In Modern Turkish Society: A Reader, Zed Books, London, 81–88 (1995).

England, K. V. L., “Suburban Pink Collar Ghettos: The Spatial Entrapment Of Women?”, Annals Of The Association Of American Geographers, 83.2: 225–42 (1993).

England, K. V. L., “Girls In The Office: Recruiting And Job Search In A Local Clerical Labor Market”, Environment And Planning, A 27.12, 1195–2018 (1995).

Fernandez-Kelly, M. P., “Social And Cultural Capital In The Urban Ghetto: Implications For The Economic Sociology Of Immigration. In: A. Portes (Ed.)”, The Economic Sociology Of Immigration: Essays Entrepreneurship, Russell Sage, New York, 213– 47 (1995). Ethnicity, And

Fischer, C. S., “To Dwell Among Friends: Personal Networks In Town And City”, University Of Chicago Press, Chicago. (1982).

Fischer, C. S., And Oliker, S. ,”A Research Note On Friendship, Gender, And The Life Cycle”, Social Forces, 62.1: 124–33 (1983).

Gordon, D. M., Ed. “Segmented Work, Divided Workers: The Historical Transformation Of Labour In The United States”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. (1982).

Granovetter, M. The Strength Of Weak Ties. American Journal Of Sociology 78.6: 1360–88 (1973).

Granovetter, M., “Getting A Job: A Study Of Contacts And Careers”, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Ma. (1974).

Granovetter, M., “Toward A Sociological Theory Of Income Differences. In: I. Berg (Ed.)”, Sociological Perspectives On Labor Markets, Academic Press, New York, 11–48 (1981).

Granovetter, M., “Economic Action And Social Structure: The Problem Of Embeddedness”, American Journal Of Sociology, 91.3: 481–510 (1985).

Gruber, J. E., “The Impact Of Male Work Environments And Organizational Policies On Women’s Experience Of Sexual Harassment”, Gender & Society, 12.3: 301–20 (1998).

Hanson, S., Pratt, G., “Spatial Dimensions Of The Gender Division Of Labour In A Local Labour Market”, Urban Geography, 9.2: 180–202 (1988).

Hanson, S., Johnston, I., “Gender Differences In Length: Work Implications”, Urban Geography, 6.3: 193–219 Explanations And

Hanson, S., Pratt, G., “Dynamic Dependencies: A Geographic Investigation Of Local Labour Markets”, Economic Geography, 68.4: 373–405 (1992).

Hanson, S., Pratt, G., “Job Search And The Occupational Segregation Of Women”, Annals Of The Association Of American Geographers, 81.2: 229–53 (1991).

Hanson, S., Pratt, G., “Gender, Work, And Space”, Routledge, London (1995).

Hellerstein, J. K., Ed. “Neighbours And Co- Workers: The Importance Of Residential Labour Market Networks”, Nber Working Paper, No. 09– 01 (2009).

Ilkkaracan, I., “Kentli Kadınlar Ve Çalışma Yaşamı, Bilanço 98,75 Yılda Kadınlar Ve Erkekler”, Tarih Vakfi Yayinlari, Istanbul (1998).

Immergluck, D., “Neighborhood Economic Development And Local Working: The Effect Of Nearby Jobs On Where Residents Work”, Economic Geography, 74.2, 170–87 (1998).

Jacobs, J. A., “Long Term Trends In Occupational Segregation By Sex”, American Journal Of Sociology, 95.1: 160–73 (1989).

Jacobs, J. A., Lim, S. T., “Trends In Occupational And Industrial Sex Segregation In 56 Countries, 1960–1080”, Work And Occupations, 19.4, 450– 86 (1992).

Johnston-Anumonwo, I., “The Journey To Work And Occupational Segregation Of Women”, Urban Geography, 9.2:138–54 (1988).

Kahn, L. M., “The Returns To Job Search: A Test Of Two Models”, Review Of Economics And Statistics, 60.4:496–503 (1978).

Kanter, R. M., “Men And Women Of The Corporation”, Basic Books, New York (1977).

Kasnakoğlu, Z, Dayioğlu, M., “Female Labour Force Participation And Earnings Differentials Between Genders In Turkey. In: H. M. Rives And M. Yousefi (Eds.)”, Economic Dimensions Of Gender Inequality: A Global Perspective, Praeger, Westport, Ct, 95– 117 (1997).

Kaufman, B. E., “How Labour Markets Work”, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York (1988).

Kardam, F. And Toksoz, G., “Gender Based Discrimination At Work In Turkey: A Cross- Sectoral Overview”, Ankara University, Faculty Of Political Sciences Journal, 59.4.: 151–72 (2004).

Koçak, S., “Gender Discrimination In The Turkish Labour Market”, Unpublished Thesis (Phd), De Montfort University, Leicester, Uk (1999).

Lippman, S. A., Mccall, J. I., “The Economics Of Job Search: A Survey”, Economic Inquiry, 14.2: 155–89 (1976).

Major, B., Konar, E., “An Investigation Of Sex Differences In Pay Expectations And Their Possible Causes”, Academy Of Management Journal, 27.4: 777–92 (1984).

Maume, D.V., Houston, J. P., “Job Segregation And Gender Differences In Work-Family Spillover Among White- Collar Workers”, Journal Of Family And Economic Issues, 22.2: 171–89 (2001).

Marini, M. M., Brinton, M. C., “Sex Stereotyping In Occupational Socialization”, In B. F. Reskin (Ed.), Sex Segregation In The Work Place: Trends, Explanations, And Remedities, National Academy Press, Washington Dc, 192–232 (1984).

Marini, M. M., “Sex Differences In Earnings In The United States”, Annual Review Of Sociology, 15: 343–80 (1989).

Marsden, P., “Core Discussion Networks Of Americans”, American Sociological Review, 52.1: 122–31 (1987).

Marshall, J., “Organization Cultures: Attempting Change Often Means More Of The Same”, The Journal: Management, 3, 4–6 (1992). Organizations And

Mattingly, D. J., “Job Search, Social Networks, And Local Labour Market Dynamics: The Case Of Paid Household Work In San Diego, California”, Urban Geography, 20.1: 46–74 (1999).

Mcpherson, J. M., Lynn, S. L., “Women And Weak Ties: Differences By Sex In The Size Of Voluntary Organizations”, American Journal Of Sociology , 87.4: 883–904 (1982).

Mcpherson, J. M., Lynn, S. L., “Sex Segregation In Sociological Review, 51.1: 61–80 (1986). American

Mencken, F.C., Winfield, I., “Job Search And Sex Segregation: Does Sex Of Social Contact Matter?”, Sex Roles, 42.9: 847–64 (2000).

Moore, G., “Structural Determinants Of Men’s And Women’s Personal Networks”, American Sociological Review, 55.5:726–35 (1990).

Olfert, M. R., Moebis, D. M., “The Spatial Gender Economy Segregation”, The Review Of Regional Studies, 36.1: 44–62 (2006). Based Occupational

Özmen, C. A., “Efforts And Effects Of Local Economic Development: The Case Of Beypazari”, Unpublished Technical University, Çankaya Ankara, Turkey Middle East

Pahl, R. E., “Some Remarks On Informal Work, Social Polarization And The Social Structure”, International Journal Of Urban And Regional Research, 12.2:247–67 (1988).

Portes, A., Castells, M., “The Informal Economy: Studies In Advanced And Less Developed Countries”, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore (1989).

Portes, A., Sassen-Koob, S., “Making It Underground: Comparative Material On The Informal Sector In Western Market Economies”, American Journal Of Sociology, 93.1: 30–61 (1987).

Preston, J. A., “Occupational Gender Segregation: Trends And Explanations”, The Quarterly Review Of Economics And Finance, 39.5: 611–24 (1999).

Reskin, B. F., “Sex Segregation In The Workplace”, Annual Review Of Sociology, 19: 241–70 (1993).

Reskin, B. F., Roos, P. A., “Job Queues And Gender Queues”, Temple University Press, Philadelphia (1990).

Reskin, B. F., Bielby, D. D., “A Sociological Perspective On Gender And Career Outcomes”, Journal Of Economic Perspectives, 19.1: 71–86 (2005).

Ricardo, M., Ruiz-Castillo, J., “Additively Decomposable Segregation Indexes: The Case Of Gender Segregation By Occupations And Human Capital Levels In Spain”, Journal Of Economic Inequality, 1.2: 147–79 (2003).

Rich, J., Palaz, S., “Why Has Occupational Sex Segregation In Turkey Increased Since 1975?” Labour ,22.1: 185–218 (2008).

Rogers, J. K., Henson, K. D. , “Hey, Why Don’t You Wear Vulnerability And The Organization Of Sexual Harassment In Temporary Clerical Employment”, Gender & Society, 11.2, 215–37 (1997). Structural

Rogerson, C. M., “Tourism And Local Economic Development: The Case Of The Highlands Meander”, Development Southern Africa, 19.1: 143–67 (2002).

Roos, P. A., Reskin, B. F., “Institutional Factors Contributing To Sex Segregation In The Workplace”, In B. F. Reskin (Ed.), Sex Segregation Explanations, Remedies, National Academy Press, Washington Dc, 235–60 (1984). Workplace: Trends,

Sassen, S., “Immigration And Local Labour Markets”, In: A. Portes (Ed.) The Economic Sociology Of Immigration: Essays On Networks, Ethnicity And Entrepreneurship, Russell Sage, New York, 87–127 (1995).

Selim, R., Ilkkaracan, I., “Gender Inequalities In The Labour Market In Turkey: Differentials In Wages, Industrial And Occupational Distribution Of Men And Women”, Istanbul University, Istanbul (2002).

Shaw, A., Pandit, K., “The Geography Of Segmentation Of Informal Labour Markets: The Case Of Motor Vehicle Repair In Calcutta”, Economic Geography, 77.2: 180–96 (2001).

Singell, L., Lillydahl, J., “An Empirical Analysis Of The Commute To Work Patterns Of Males And Females In Two-Earner Households”, Urban Studies, 23.2: 119–129 (1986).

Stigler, G. J., “Information In The Labour Market”, Journal Of Political Economy, 69.3: 94– 105 (1962).

Stobart, J., Ball, R., “Tourism And Local Development: Economic Conventional View”, Local Economy, 13.3: 228– 38 (1998). Beyond The

Tansel, A., “Public-Private Employment Choice, Wage Differentials And Gender In Turkey”, Economic Development And Cultural Change, 53.2: 453–77 (2005).

Tamer, M., “Kadın Istihdamında Nal Toplamak”, Milliyet Newspaper, 10 July, 8 (2005).

Thomas, K. W., Velthouse, B. A., “Cognitive Elements Of Employment: An ‘Interpretive’ Model Of Instrinsic Task Motivation”, Academy Of Management Review, 15.4: 666–81. (1990).

Tomaskovic-Devey, D., “Gender And Race Work: Inequality Consequences Of Job Segregation”, Ilr Press, Ithaca, Ny. (1993). The Sources And

Tucker, H., “Living With Tourism: Negotiating Identities In A Turkish Village”, Routledge, London (2003).

Tucker, H., “Undoing Shame: Tourism And Women’s Work In Turkey”, Journal Of Tourism And Cultural Change, 5.2:87–105. (2007).

Tüik, Bölgesel İstatistikler, Ankara, Turkey. (2000).

Tüik, Bölgesel İstatistikler, Ankara, Turkey.

Waldinger, R., “The ‘Other Side’ Of Embeddedness: A Case Study In The Interplay Of Economy And Ethnicity”, Ethnic And Racial Studies, 18.3: 555–80 (1995).

Wial, H., “Getting A Good Job: Mobility In A Segmented Labour Market”, Industrial Relations, 30.3: 396–416 (1991). [99] Witz, A., “Professions And Patriarchy”, Routledge, New York (1992). [100]

White, M., “A Model Of Residential Location

Choice Commuting By Men And Women

Workers”, Journal Of Regional Science, 17.1: 41–52 (1977). [101] Williams, A. M., Shaw, G., “Tourism:

Candyfloss Industry Or Job Generator?”, Town

Planning Review, 59.1: 81–104 (1988). [102] Wilson, F. D., “Ethnic Niching And

Occupational Segregation: A Study Of Women

And Work In Fishing Communities”, Qualitative

Sociology, 23.3: 267–90 (2000).